The Karat mark tells you that it is real gold and the
percentage of pure gold in the piece. All 14k pieces
are 58.3% pure gold.
Displays military time by sub-wheels or digital readout.
Automatic High Precision - our latest movement. A swinging
rotor drives a mini-generator. Its electric power is stored
in a capacitor, which supplies energy to the quartz-controlled
Servo-controlled motor drive. The system, integrated in
the circuit, lengthens the duration of motor impulse when
the mechanism meets resistance (during date-change for
example) and reverts to the normal duration when the resistance
ends. The technique increases battery life by 30%.
A watch feature that sounds an alarm at pre-set time or
at regular intervals.
A function that provides altitude by responding to changes
in barometric pressure, commonly found in pilot watches.
Note that inside a pressurized airplane cabin, the altimeter
will register as if on land.
A watch that has both a digital display and hands of a
conventional watch. Usually featured on sport watch styles.
The most commonly-used term in referring to any analog
timepiece that operates on a battery or on solar power
and is regulated by a quartz crystal.
A watch with a dial, hands, and numbers or markers that
present a total display of a 12-hour time span.
Unit of pressure used in watch making to indicate water-resistance.
Atomic time standard
Provided by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and
Technology, Time and Frequency Division, Boulder, Colorado,
atomic time is measured through vibrations of atoms in
a metal isotope that resembles mercury. The result is
extremely accurate time that can be measured on instruments.
Radio waves transmit this exact time throughout North
America and some "atomic" watches can receive
them and correct to the exact time. To synchronize your
watch with atomic standard time, call (303) 499-7111.
Auto repeat timer
A feature that allows for continuous operation of a countdown
timer. If timer function is set at one hour and started,
it will countdown to zero, beep with a warning signal
and immediately return to the preset time and start the
countdown again. This would continue until stop button
A movement that is all mechanical and requires no winding
because the rotor, part of the automatic mechanism, winds
the mainspring every time you move your hand. When fully
wound and left to sit, most automatics will have up to
36 hours of reserve power. Mechanical movements are accurate
within one minute each day.
Ladies style watch with a thin, elongated face; usually
rectangular in shape but may be oval.
The regulating organ of the watch, vibrating on a spiral
hairspring. Lengthening or shortening the balance-spring
makes the balance-wheel go faster or slower to advance
or retard the watch.
A small rod with a sprung pivot at either end to fix the
strap (band) to the case.
Any non-precious metal.
Device that converts chemical energy into electricity.
Most watch batteries are silver oxide type delivering
1.5 volts. Much longer-lasting lithium batteries are 3
The minimum period of time that a battery will continue
to provide power to run the watch. Life begins at the
point of manufacture when the factory initially installs
The surface ring on the watch that surrounds and holds
the crystal in place. A rotating ratchet bezel moves in
some sport watches as part of the timing device. If rotating
bezels are bi-directional, able to move clockwise or counter
clockwise, they can assist in calculations for elapsed
Flexible metal band consisting of assembled links, usually
in the same style as the case. detachable links change
the length of the bracelet.
Copper and zinc alloy used to make the main plate and
bridge wheels in the movement.
Usually matching the case, it attaches the two parts of
the leather strap around the wrist.
Push piece controls, usually at 2 o'clock and/or 4 o'clock
on the dial to control special functions such as the chronograph
or the alarm.
A rounded semi-precious stone or synthetic material usually
black, fitted into the watch crown as an ornament.
A watch feature that shows the date and sometimes the
day of the week and the month. It can be displayed through
a cut-out window in the dial, as a sud-dial with small
hands indicating the day/date feature or by digital readout.
The dimensions of the watch. Caliber describes the size
and configuration of the movement and can now indicate
the shape, origin and constructor as well.
Often Used in referring to a curved or arched dial or
Unit of gold fineness (and gemstone weight). Pure gold
is 24k. 18k gold is 75% pure.
The metal housing of a watch's parts. Stainless steel
is the most typical metal used but also titanium, gold,
silver, and platinum can be used. Less expensive watches
are usually made of brass and plated with gold or silver.
A multifunction sport watch with a stopwatch function.
Most have two or three sub dials, or minidials, for measuring
minutes and hours.
A precision watch that is set in various temperatures
and positions, thus meeting the accuracy standards set
by an official watch institute in Switzerland. Most watch
companies either provide this certificate with a purchase
or it can be mailed to you.
The attachment used to connect the two ends of the watch
bracelet or strap around the wrist.
three-folding enclosure, which secures the two ends of
the bracelet and allows enough room for placing the watch
on the wrist when fully deployed. When closed, the buckle
covers the two-piece folding mechanism
Buckle—See Deployment buckle
Lock—Two separate units each fitting on either
end of the bracelet which allows the watch to be laid
out. One end of the closure hooks onto the other to secure
the two ends of the bracelet.
Clasp—A closure that is generally used on
better bracelets. Also allows it to lie flat.
a hook type method but allows for easy sizing of the bracelet
by sliding up.
Lock—A closure similar to Jeweler's Clasp
used on ladies jewelry bracelets.
A watch with other functions besides time keeping. For
example, a chronograph is a watch complication. other
complications coveted by watch collectors include: minute
repeater, tourbillion, perpetual calendar, or split second
System to set the watch indicators (the hour, minute or
day) by means of the crown.
Measures remaining time from preset period of time. (Example:
Can be used to countdown time of a basketball game.)
Nodule extending from the case that is used to set the
time, date, etc. Most pull out to set the time. In water
resistant styles, the crowns should screw down.
The clean cover over the watch face. Three types of crystals
are commonly found in watches. Acrylic crystal, a plastic,
is inexpensive and shallow scratches can be buffed out.
Mineral crystal is comprised of several elements that
are heat treated to create unusual hardness that aids
in resisting scratches. Sapphire crystal is the most expensive
and durable, approximately three times harder than mineral
crystals and 20 time harder than acrylic crystals. A nonreflective
coating on some sport styles prevents glare.
A watch that indicates not only the date but the day of
The watch face. The numerals, indices, or surface design
are usually applied; others have been printed on.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) enabling a color to appear
or vanish on the surface.
Any watch that shows the time in numbers instead of hands
on the dial. the numbers appear in LCD (liquid crystal
diode) which shows a continuous reading or in LED (light-emitting
diode) which shows time at the push of a button.
A mechanical or solid state watch in which the time shows
through changes of digits, rather than positions of hands
on the dial.
Can be displayed by rotating a bezel or digital readout
on the face of the watch. It is used to determine a geographical
direction using the location of the sun.
Diver's watches are designed and manufactured
especially for divers whose lives depend on the
reliability of their watch in the water. •
Seiko and Pulsar diver's watches meet ISO (International
Standardization Organization) regulations. diver's
watches must meet various standards regarding
water resistancy, pressure resistancy, readability
in the water, time presetting function (rotating
elapsed time bezel), anti-magnetic ability, anti-shock,
rust resistancy in salt water, manageability in
water, ability to withstand sudden temperature
• Seiko and Pulsar
diver's watches also have features such as:
Rotating Bezel will only rotate counter clockwise.
this is so in case rotated accidentally the bezel
will not show an extended diving duration.
o For accurate setting, bezel also has a one minute
o Inscribed on the case back is the battery replacement
month to prevent the watch from stopping during
o Straps feature extra large buckles for easy
fastening and longer length to allow it to be
worn over a diving suit.
o Bezel is set higher than the surface of the
crystal to help protect it.
o Large luminous hands and markers are designed
for clear readability.
o Please refer to the Instruction Booklet for
Check," and "Battery Change Instructions."
A watch that measures current local time as well as
at least one other time zone. The additional time element
may come from a twin dial, extra hand, subdials, or
End of Life. In quartz movement the end of battery life
is indicated by the seconds hand which starts to jump
every four seconds. The battery should be changed immediately.
End of Energy. System used with the AHP alerts the wearer
of accumulator discharge by causing the seconds hand
to jump every four seconds instead of every second.
The accumulator can the be recharged by turning the
Process of covering metal articles with a film of other
metals. The article is immersed in a chemical solution;
electric current (D.C.) flows through the solution from
a piece of metal (anode) to the article (cathode), depositing
metal thereon by electrolysis. metals which can be used
for plating are: 1) gold—a precious metal generally
yellow in color; 2) chrome—can be white or black;
3) palladium—a precious metal, generally white;
4) ruthenium—also a precious metal but usually
The visible side of the watch where the dial is contained,
most are printed with Arabic or Roman numerals. Note:
traditionally IIII, rather than IV, is used to indicate
the 4 o'clock position.
A seconds hand on a chronograph that is used to determine
lap or finishing times for several competitors. To operate,
put both the flyback and the regular second hand in
motion, then to record a lap or finishing time, the
flyback hand can be stopped. After taking the results,
push a button and the flyback hand will catch up to
the constantly moving second hand.
The number of vibrations a second, in hertz (Hz).
Yellow precious metal which is stainless and very malleable.
Used in alloys to make jewelry, bracelets and watches.
The portion of gold in the alloy is indicated in carats
A style of intricate engraving that is popular on watch
dials, usually very thin lines interwoven to create
a surface texture.
The pointing device anchored at the center and circling
around the dial indicating hours, minutes, seconds and
any other special features of the watch.
• Alpha Hands: A
slightly tapered hand.
• Baton Hands: A
narrow hand sometimes referred to as a stick hand.
• Dauphine Hands:
A wide, tapered hand with a facet at the center running
the length of the hand.
• Luminous Hands:
Hands made of skeleton form with the opening filled
by a luminous material.
• Skeleton Hands:
Cut-out hands showing only the frame.
A scratch-resistant metal comprised of binding several
materials, including titanium and tungsten-carbide,
which are then pressed into an extremely hard metal
and polished with diamond powder to add brilliance.
Used as a protective shield for spacecraft reentering
the earth's atmosphere, high tech ceramic is polished
with diamond dust to create a highly polished finish.
Because the ceramic can be injection molded, pieces
can be contoured. It has a very smooth surface, usually
found in black, but can be produced in a spectrum of
The science of time measurement, including the art of
designing and constructing timepieces.
Hourly time signal
Single beep/chime which rings on the hour, every hour
when it is engaged.
Synthetic sapphires or rubies that act as bearings for
gears of a mechanical watch. A quality hand wound or
automatic mechanical watch contains at least 17 jewels.
Based on a revolutionary technology, Seiko Kinetic®
watches run entirely on sell generated energy from natural
movement of your wrist. It never needs a battery.
Liquid-crystal display. This digital time display is
used by longines to give additional chronograph indications.
Several types of lighted dials are used so that you
can tell time in the dark. Recently, a patented night-lite
process, called electro-luminesce, lights the entire
dial with a uniform light that makes for easy reading
in nighttime situations. A side button activates the
light. This technology often appears under a name brand
such as Timex' Indiglo or Seiko's LumiBrite.
Extensions on either side of the bezel where the bracelet
or strap is attached.
environmentally safe illumination technology that will
glow brightly for hours without pushing a button or
drawing energy from a battery.
self illuminating paint used on hands and markers.
A hand-wound mechanical watch.
Describes a movement with a balance wheel.
A movement based on a mainspring which is wound by hand;
when wound, it slowly unwinds the spring in an even
motion. An automatic mechanical requires no winding
because of the rotor, which winds the mainspring every
time you move your body.
Military or 24-hour time
When time is measured in 24-hour segments. To convert
12-hour time into 24-hour time, simply add 12 to any
p.m. time. To convert 24-hour time into 12-hour time,
subtract 12 from any time from 13 to 24.
Watch glass that has been tempered to increase its scratch
A complication on a watch that can strike the time in
hours, quarters, or seconds by means of a push piece.
An indicator that keeps track of the phases of the moon.
A regular rotation of the moon is once around the earth
every 29 days, 12 hours, and 44 minutes. once set, the
moon phase indicator accurately displays the phase of
Iridescent, milky interior shell of the fresh water
mollusk that is sliced thin and used on watch dials.
While most have a milky white luster, mother-of-pearl
also comes in other colors such as silvery gray, gray
blue, pink, and salmon.
The inner workings or assembly that make up the main
timekeeping mechanism. movements are either quartz or
mechanical. This is the engine of the watch.
The travel of the balance wheel from one extreme to
the other and back again. See Vibration.
A type of calendar that automatically adjusts for months
of different lengths and indicates February 29 in each
Coating a metal base with another metal. In watch making
a stainless steel base is coated with gold seven to
20 microns thick.
One of the rarest precious metals, platinum is also
one of the strongest and heaviest, making it a popular
choice for setting gemstone jewelry and watches. It
has a rich, white luster, and an understated look. Platinum
is hypoallergenic and tarnish resistant. Platinum used
in jewelry and watches is at least 85 to 95 percent
pure. Many platinum watches are produced in limited
editions due to the expense and rarity of the metal.
Brilliant metal surface obtained on the watch-case with
The time the watch will run with a fully charged power
supply. For mechanical watches it is usually 44 hours.
For quartz watches it can vary from 18 moths to 10 years.
Physical Vapor Deposition. Method of coating thin watch
cases by integrating titanium particles and then depositing
gold for color.
A natural or commercially synthesized silicon dioxide
crystal. used in "quartz analog" or solid
state digital watches. when activated by a battery or
solar power, the thin sliver of crystal very predictably
vibrates at an extremely high frequency (32,768 times
per second) thus providing very accurate timekeeping.
The main components are: an Electric Circuit Block (Quartz
Oscillator and CMOS-IC) and the Mechanical Block (step
motor, gear train, hands) and a battery.
Quartz crystal movement
A movement which allows a watch to be worn without being
wound. This technology employs the vibrations of a tiny
crystal to maintain accuracy of time. A digital quartz
has no mechanical parts but is powered by a battery.
The cell battery must be replaced about every 1.5 years.
Numbers and letters are on a Liquid Crystal Display
(LCD). Most quartz movements are made in Hong Kong.
Japan, or Switzerland.
Ratchet bezel ring
A bezel ring which can either turn one way (counter
clockwise) or both ways and generally clicks into place.
Rose (or pink) gold
A softly hued gold that contains the same materials
as yellow gold but with a higher concentration of copper
in the alloy. A popular color in Europe, rose gold in
watches is often seen in retro styling or in tricolor
gold versions. Some 18k red gold watches achieve their
color from additional copper in the alloy.
Creating a granular metal finish by using a high-pressure
jet of sand.
Synthetic corundum crystal with a hardness second only
to diamond. Transparent sapphire is used for scratch-proof
Combination of sapphire and hardlex crystals.
Screw down locking crown
A crown which aids water resistance by sealing the crown
against the case. The seal is achieved by the matching
of a threaded pipe on the case with the crown's internal
threads and gasketing while twisting the crown to lock
it into place.
Synthetic gaskets that seal the joints between parts
of the case and keep out the wet.
Spring devices in balance-wheel bearings that divert
shocks away from the fragile pivot (usually 12/100mm
diameter) to the sturdier parts of the balance staff.
The springs allow the balance-wheel to return to its
original position after shocks.
If shock resistance is specified on a watch case, a
watch can withstand normal wear and tear, even during
strenuous sport activities.
A satin finish obtained by using tiny glass pellets,
one or two microns in diameter.
A transparent front or back that permits viewing into
the inner workings of the watch.
Slide rule bezel
A rotating bezel that is printed with a logarithmic
scale and assorted other scales and is used in conjunction
with fixed rules of mathematics to perform general mathematical
calculations or navigational computations.
A type of quartz movement where the batteries are recharged
via solar panels on the watch face. They have a power
reserve so they can run even in the dark.
A timepiece with no moving parts. All digital watches
are 100% solid state. Analog watches combine solid state
circuits with moving parts.
A second chronograph that runs concurrently with the
first but can be stopped independently to record an
intermediate time. It the catches up to run with the
first hand again.
Split time measurement
• Measures the elapsed time of a certain moment
of an event.
• If you want to know the elapsed time at a certain
point during a track meet, you can tell exact time by
• The chronograph keeps running while split time
is being displayed. Therefore, when split time is released
the display returns to original measurement of total
An extremely durable metal alloy (chromium is a main
ingredient) that is virtually immune to rust, discoloration,
and corrosion; it can be highly polished, thus resembling
a precious metal. Because of its strength, stainless
steel is often used even on case backs on watches made
of other metals.
A white and highly reflective precious metal. Sterling
refers to silver that is 92.5 percent pure, which should
be stamped on the metal, sometimes accompanied by the
initials of the designer or country of origin as a hallmark.
Although less durable than stainless steel and other
precious metals, sterling silver is often employed in
watches that coordinate or look like sterling jewelry.
A protective coating may be added to prevent tarnish.
A watch band made of leather, plastic or fabric.
A small dial used for any of several purposes, such
as keeping track of elapsed minutes or hours on a chronograph
or indicating the date.
A wheel on a watch partially visible through a cut-out
window indicating a sun and moon on a 24-hour basis.
A watch that is accurate to ±10 seconds per year.
a science that starts with quartz crystal oscillators
working with a patented integrated circuit technology,
assuring their accuracy up to 20 times more accurate
than conventional quartz watches.
A seconds-hand mounted in the center of the dial instead
of a subdial.
Tachymeter (also tachometer)
A watch function that measures the speed at which the
wearer traveled by means of a numeric scale on the watch
bezel of a chronograph. Frequently used to determine
a speed of a car over a measured distance.
A rectangular watch with heavier bars on either side
of the dial, inspired by the tank tracks of World War
I and first created by Louis Cartier
A watch function that finds the distance of an object
from the wearer by measuring how long it takes sound
to travel that distance. Like a tachymeter, a telemeter
consists of a stopwatch function and a special scale
on the dial of a chronograph.
The "space age" metal, often with a silvery-gray
appearance. Because it is 30 percent stronger and nearly
50 percent lighter than steel it has been increasingly
used in watch making, especially sport watch styles.
Its resistance to salt water corrosion makes it particularly
useful in diver's watches. Since it can be scratched
fairly easily, some manufacturers use a patented-coating
to resist scratching.
A watch with a barrel-shaped case with two convex sides.
A device in some mechanical watches that eliminates
timekeeping errors caused by slight variations due to
shifts in gravity when a watch changes position during
use. The round carriage or "cage" of the tourbillon
holds the mechanisms that rotate the wheels, and thus
the hands of the watch, in a continuous rate of once
Very High Precision. A quartz movement with a temperature
sensor to keep rate variations to within extremely narrow
margins. The movement corrects itself to a precision
of ±10 seconds a year.
A swing of the balance. A watch vibrating 18,000 times
an hour beats five time a second. See Oscillation.
An illegal and misused term: No watch is fully 100 percent
A watch bearing the inscription "water-resistant"
on its case back can handle light moisture, such as
a rainstorm or sink splashes, but should not be worn
swimming or diving. If the watch can be submerged in
water, it must state at what depth it maintains water-resistance,
i.e. 50 meters (165 feet) or more on most sport watches.
Below 200 meters, the watch may be used for skin diving
and even scuba diving depending upon the indicated depths.
Sometimes water-resistance is measured in atmospheres
(ATM), which is equal to 10 meters of water pressure.
(Some European-made watches use the term "bar"
instead). Straps other than metal bracelets may not
be water-resistant. New water-resistant versions of
nylon, rubber, and other synthetics are a trend in sport
Watches come in different water resistant depths and
• Water resistant—Will withstand splashes
of water or rain but should not be worn while swimming
• Water tested to 50 meters (165 feet)—Suitable
for showering or swimming in shallow water.
• Water tested to 100 meters (330 feet)—Suitable
for swimming or snorkeling.
• Water tested to 150 meters (500 feet)—
Suitable for snorkeling.
• Water tested to 200 meters (660 feet)—Suitable
for skin diving.
• Diver's to 150 meters—Meets ISO Standards
and is suitable for scuba diving.
• Diver's to 200 meters—Meets ISO Standards
and is suitable for scuba diving.
Created from yellow gold by incorporating either nickel
or palladium to the alloy to achieve a white color.
Most watches made of white gold will be 18k.
An analog watch that is able to display digital functions
at the touch of a button. An easily legible white numeric
display appears on the inside surface of the crystal
when any digital function is activated.
A watch with a dial that indicates up to 24 time zones
around the world, usually found on the outer edge of
the face or sometimes on the bezel. Time zones around
the world are indicated by major cities.
The traditionally popular gold used in all gold or gold
and stainless steel or other precious metal combinations.
Yellow gold watches may be found in 14k or, as found
from most European manufacturers, 18k